KURE MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK

NATIONAL PARK
National Park is an area of preservation, relaxation and tourism with its rare natural and cultural source values national and international.
 
LOCATION
It is located in the north of Anatolia and the west part of Kure Mountains in Bartın and Kastamonu provincial borders. Kure Mountains National Park covers of 37.753 hectares, around 134,366 hectares of land is allocated as buffer zone. The area’s total size is 172,119 hectares. There are 8 districts and 123 villages around Kure Mountains. The part of %52 is in Bartın and %48 in Kastamonu.
 
IMPORTANCE
It was declared as a national park in 07.07.2000. Kure Mountains National Park is one of the area of 9 hot spot needed to be preserved in Turkey. In addition to this, it is the first PAN (Protected Area Network) Park area. ( It is declared as PAN Park in 2012).
 
ZONING
11- Strict Preservation Zone 2- Critical Preservation Zone 3- Sustainable Usage Zone 4- Controlled Usage Zone
 
PANPARKS
(Europe’s Prominent National Park Network) Member
The first PANPARKS national park’s member of our country is a foundation that focused on preserving wild areas throughout Europe.
HISTORY
Kure Mountains National Park is a plateau on the Küre Mountains, on the west of Black Sea Region. It was declared in 2000 as a National Park. Kure Mountains National Park covers of 37.753 hectares, around 134,366 hectares of land in the buffer zone. The life in Kure Mountains National Park is not widespread and in national park there is no settlement. The national park in east-west direction is a threshold in terms of physical and social. Kure Mountains start from Bartin River on the west and runs around 300 kilometers on to Kizilirmak (Kızılırmak) River toward the east. Also known as Isfendiyar Mountains, the mountain range is adjacent to Black Sea on the north and Gökirmak on the south. With its moving topographic structure, Kure Mountains host important landscape diversity. The park includes ecosystem types such as coast and traditional agriculture, forest, river, meadow, lea, maquis, rocky area and caves and the park owes this to the part of coast mountain system.
Kure is categorised as mountain chains in medium height. The highest point (peak) is Yaralıgöz Mountain (2019m)  between Devrekâni and Abana. The only bottom alpine in this system is this peak. Ballıdağ (1746m) , Karakuz(1282m) , Göynük (1804m) and Dikmen Mountains (1657m) are other important heights throughout Kure Mountains. Kure Mountain’s Black Sea side (not indented) runs parallel to coastline. In the valleys reaching sea create streams and small coves; suddenly rising coasts create cliffs.  Coastine’s view shapes these coves and cliffs. Amasra, Kurucaşile, Cide, İnebolu, Abana, Çatalzeytin, Türkeli and Ayancık range the coast road following mountain north foot ; Ulus, Pınarbaşı, Azdavay, Kastamonu, Taşköprü ve Boyabat range in its South.
 
INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE
Strabon, one of the first geographers, said that “The best boxwood tree grows in Amastris (Amasra) mostly” and Strabon attracted attention Kure Mountains National Park, its climate and forests even those days. Evliya Çelebi in his “Travel Book” portray the forests in Amasra( Kure Mountains National Park) as “a tree flood”.
Nowadays, “The Black Sea Moist Carstic Forest” ecosystems hang by a thread had the best wild examples in Kure Mountains National Park and this park takes part 100 Forest Hot Spot needed to be preserved in Europe. Hot Spot is a term that nature conservators use for describe the high endemism level and habitat destruction areas quickly in the world.
It is considered that genetics, species, habitat, ecological process diversity, rare and endangered species, ecosystem’s sensitiveness to external factors, elderliness, maturity are various factors in terms of protecting nature.
“Northern Anatolia and Caucasus Temperate Zone Forests” are one of the preemptible 200 ecological zone of World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) in terms of protecting nature in global level. The National Park is an important area that icludes 157 endemic species of plants and 59 endemic species are endangered species.
Taking into account all of these, this area  was put under protection in 2000 as a “National Park”. In addition to this, the term “buffer zone” became the main topic of conversation with Kure Mountains National Park for biological diversity conservation in Turkey for the first time. Xenophon, 2400 years ago, says tha transportation at the interiors of the region is very difficult, while sea travel is considerably easier: “I think this route is not only troublesome, but also impossible to go through.” When Gustav Hirschfeld (1847-1895) travelled Paphlagonia Region’s north in 1882,  departed from Inebolu and came around Bartın river, he mentioned that transportation was very difficult. He says that the mountains is not suitable for travelling an deven the pathways are very narrow. He emphasizes that sea travel is very easy. The written history of the region that many travelers mention starts with the Hittites. Later, Phrygians and Lydians rule the region. The Persians capture Küre Mountains and around in the 4th century BC. After Alexander the Great conquers the region. During the1st century BC, the Pontus Kingdom takes control the region. Back then, the region was known as Paphlagonia. After the Roman Empire, Byzantium starts ruling beginning from 395 BC.
Turkish domination starts ruling Danishmends in 1105. In Kure Mountains, Turkish beylics rule such as Anatolian Seljuk Empire, Cobanogulları, Candarogulları. After Ottoman Empire  annex this region in 1461 and rule until proclamation of the Republic. Chapels, graves, late Rome and ruins which thought to Byzantine period in hidden caves in forests shed light on region’s history. The term “Kure Mountains” comes from the name of Küre town in the central sphere of the mountains. Kastamonu’s district is host chalcopyrite deposit. It can be also named as “Isfendiyar Mountains”. Xenophon, 8th Candarogulları ruler reigned the region in 1291–1461, 2400 years ago, says that transportation at the interiors of the region is very difficult, while sea travel is considerably easier: “I think this route is not only troublesome, but also impossible to go through.” When Gustav Hirschfeld (1847-1895) travelled Paphlagonia Region’s north in 1882, departed from Inebolu and came around Bartın River, he mentioned that transportation was very difficult. He says that the mountains are not suitable for travelling an deven the pathways are very narrow. He emphasizes that sea travel is very easy.
KURE MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK FAUNA
High carstic plateaus that man influence rarely include healthy and wild forest ecosystem because it contains old and deadwood, various plant species, suitable sheltering and nourishment conditions for animals living in the forest.
Kure Mountains National Park is important in terms of biological and take its source from different habitat of numerous animal species. 48 out of 160 mammal species that live in Turkey, including wildcat (Felis sylvestris), otter (Lutra lutra), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and Cervus elaphus, can be found here.    
As for birds, 129 different species were documented until now. Among these, egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) is a globally endangered species. High cliffs with wide valleys are proper habitats for vultures, falcons, eagles and night raptorials. However, the area is also important for waterfowls that both breed, spend the night by the seashore, and for temperate zone forest species. For this reason, Kure Mountains National Park is on the Turkey’s Important Bird Areas list by Nature Association and BirdLife International in 2004.
In Kure Mountains National Park, there are 113 invertebrate species, 10 amphibian species, 23 reptiles. It can be reached mammals, birds, invertebrate species, amphibians and reptiles lists from the documents in Kure Mountains National Park website.